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March 28, 2006
What Should I Eat After My Workout?
March 17, 2006
Compound Exercises Offer Multiple Benefits
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How to Gain Lean Muscle
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February 25, 2006
Rock Climbing Workout
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Competitive Diving Workout
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Water Polo Workout
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February 4, 2006
January 30, 2006
Nutrition for Water Polo, Part 2
January 30, 2006
Nutrition for Water Polo, Part 1
January 30, 2006
Nutrition for Lacrosse, Part 2
January 30, 2006
Nutrition for Golf, Part 2
January 30, 2006
Nutrition for Golf, Part 1
January 30, 2006
Nutrition for Golf, Part 2
Daily Nutritional Needs
Every golfer knows how much swinging a club involves the psyche as much as the shoulders. Understand the energy stores in the liver (i.e. liver glycogen) are the primary fuel the brain uses for energy. When the stores are low, focus and timing begin to suffer. Golfers require a high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet to maintain stamina and replenish lost liver and muscle glycogen stores during practice, competition and/or weight training.
For athletes, the American and Canadian Dietetics Associations recommend 55 to 58 percent of calories be CHO, 12 to15 percent protein and 25 to 30 percent fat. These are the minimum requirements, though there has been a growing body of evidence indicating protein and fat requirements may need to be altered for active individuals involved resistance training, especially when 15 percent of the diet is protein (1,9,10). In order to avoid muscle loss, protein and fat requirements have been slightly altered for the recommended training diet described below.
The Training Diet
During the season, a training diet should be comprised of 55 to 60 percent CHO, 20 to 25 percent protein and 15 to 20 percent fat (2). The goal of the training diet is to provide adequate energy for recovery and tissue repair quickly and efficiently, without adding body fat.
For some, it is easier to keep track of grams than calories. For simplicity, if you ate 2,000 calories a day, 55 percent of that is 1,100 calories from CHO, which is equal to 275 grams of carbohydrates. (There are four calories of CHO per gram; thus, 1100/4 = 275 g of CHO per day. For protein, there are also four calories in a gram)
Some research suggests protein should be 1.4-1.7 g/kg bodyweight (bodyweight in kg = bodyweight in pounds / 2.2 kg) per day (9) or as high as 2g/kg bodyweight per day in athletes (10). The Recommended Daily Allowance of 0.8 g/kg bodyweight per day protein is based on what is healthy for the average sedentary individual, which is not necessarily enough for athletes.
The additional protein is crucial not only for muscle repair, but also as an additional energy source. During times of low CHO stores and exhaustion, the body will use its own muscle as an energy source. Because it is so difficult to build and maintain muscle, athletes should be careful not to lose it.
Keep fat intake to 15 to 20 percent of your total calories, consisting primarily of essential and monounsaturated fats. Essential fatty acids are the type of fat that the body cannot create found in fish, flax seeds and walnuts. Monounsaturated fats, which are fats with one double bond, can come from olive or canola oils, seeds and/or avocados.
For someone consuming 2,000 calories a day, the fat intake should be about 400 calories. This is equal to about 44 to 67 grams (each fat gram contains nine calories).
Fat is used as fuel for endurance, but it also aids in neural recovery. Keeping your fat intake to less than 15 percent may have a harmful effect by inhibiting absorption of those vitamins that dissolve in fat, and it has no effect on improving your body fat percentage.
Because of the type of energy systems involved in golf, fat is used the least. Keeping a low fat intake and maintaining your caloric intake to sustain your weight are key to adding minimal body fat.
Nutrition and Off-Season vs. In-Season vs. Pre-Season
During the Off-Season, golfers want to either add muscle mass or lose body fat. It is common for competitors to gain body fat during the off-season, then want to drop it quickly once pre-season begins. Some resort to crash or fad diets to drop body fat. This usually results in a loss of strength and muscle mass rather than body fat.
When trying to add muscle mass, pay as close attention to your caloric intake as if you were trying to lose body fat. This will help you to gain as little unwanted body fat as possible. Some fat gain is inevitable because you cannot add muscle without some sort of additional energy, but this strategy should keep it to a minimum.
The Bulking Up Training Diet
The diet should consist of 55 percent CHO, 25 percent protein and 20 percent fat. Eat another 500 calories per day to gain one pound per week. Eat additional protein. Adding additional protein can be easy.
- Try consuming 20 grams whey protein 30 to 40 grams carbohydrates 30 to 40 minutes prior to exercise.
- Sip carbohydrates during weight training (i.e. Cytomax).
- Immediately after, consume a protein shake with at least 20 grams whey-casein combo or drink 20 oz. of skim milk or fat free chocolate milk.
- Eat a whole food meal with the above ratios one hour later.
- Increase protein to 1.5-2g/kg bodyweight.
Pre-Season and In-Season
The Pre-Season and In-Season dietary regimens should follow the Training Diet as recommended in the “Daily Nutritional Needs” portion as described above. During these seasons, the goals have changed from hypertrophy to strength and power development.
The primary purpose of the pre-game meal is to decrease the onset of fatigue (i.e. muscle glycogen depletion) during the game, which will lead to decreased performance. There is little consensus on the composition and timing of the pre-game meal.
Some trial and error may be needed, however, make sure to use practice rounds in order to determine what food will not cause GI distress, will help maintain focus, endurance, etc.
Here are some guidelines for your pre-game meal:
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- Eat low-glycemic foods, such as whole grain cereals, certain fruits, chicken sandwiches made with whole wheat bread, etc., approximately two to three hours before a competition. This may be difficult with early morning tee times. Make sure to at least get something in 15 minutes prior to your tee time. The closer to your tee time, the smaller the meal. The food will help sustain blood-sugar levels.
- Keep protein and fat intakes low because they slow digestion.
- Avoid bulky foods, like raw fruits and vegetables, dry beans, peas and popcorn, which can stimulate bowel movements.
- Avoid gas-forming foods such as vegetables from the cabbage family and cooked dry beans.
- Drink 400 to 600 mL (14 to 22 oz) of fluid two to three hours before exercise, depending on your tolerance (1).
- Do not try new foods just before a match. Eat foods familiar with your digestive system.
- Some athletes prefer to use their favorite foods, which may give them a psychological edge.
During the Game
Today’s tournaments and qualifying rounds last approximately five hours, thus a golfer must make his best swing last awhile. Once physical fatigue sets in, deterioration in skills can be expected. Both dehydration and low-blood sugar levels are possible during competition, and may impair golfing performance.
Sweat losses may be considerable especially when tournaments are played in hot and windy environments. Although many golf courses provide drink stations for players, they may be at infrequent intervals and not allow sufficient opportunity for fluid replacement during a game. Since players will usually miss a meal while playing a round, they may be faced with no carbohydrate intake for five or six hours. Combined with exercise and nervous stress, this situation may cause a drop in blood-sugar levels in susceptible individuals. This will adversely affect brain function and skill.
When tournaments are played over several days the situation may be compounded. Chronic dehydration and an inadequate CHO intake may cause fatigue, loss of weight and poor performance.
The following tips can help to avoid some of these problems:
- Don’t forget your Pre-Game Meal!
- Organize yourself to take adequate provisions onto the golf course.
- Experiment during practice rounds to develop a plan for fluid and food intake that best suits you.
- Bring a water bottle containing a solution of six to seven percent carbohydrate and electrolytes, such as Cytomax, Heed, Hammer Gel, or G Push.
- Try to avoid Gatorade, Powerade or any of the common sport drinks seen on commercials because they contain more table sugar than desired, which may lead to GI distress and poor replacement of muscle glycogen; however, something is better than nothing.
- Frequent ingestion of small volumes of fluid is recommended e.g. 150ml every 20 minutes.
- Experiment with foods such as sandwiches, fruit, cereal bars, dried fruit, nuts etc.
Post- Game Meal
DO NOT FORGET the post-game meal!
Consume 1.5 g/kg bodyweight of CHO-rich, low fiber foods and beverages within 30 minutes or as soon as possible after a game and again every two hours for four to six hours to replace glycogen stores (1). This may be difficult when traveling, but failing to do so will encourage under-recovery and potential muscle wasting.
After physical activity lasting longer than an hour, the body best restores lost glycogen when carbohydrates and protein are consumed together in a ratio of 4:1 (6) or 3:1 (7,8), rather than simply consuming carbohydrates alone. Furthermore, the combination of CHO and protein has the added benefit of stimulating amino acid transport, protein synthesis and muscle tissue repair, all of which will further speed recovery and re-energize you for your next competition.
Products such as Endurox R4 by Endurox and Recoverite by Hammer Gel will provide both nutrients. When in a bind another option is drinking 20 oz. of low-fat chocolate milk post-exercise.
It is better to consume the “meal” as a liquid in order to facilitate recovery faster, and follow with a variety of whole-foods between two and four hours later.
Return to the normal Training Diet at the next meal.
Following most tournaments and recreational gatherings, there is a social gathering at the nineteenth hole – the club barroom. The temptation of binge drinking may come more for a celebration of victory or a gathering to ease the pain of defeat, especially when playing for skins or if somebody got a hole-in-one. A couple of drinks will not hinder performance or health initially, however alcohol intake can interfere with your recovery (3-5).
Follow these tips when you encounter the temptation of binge drinking:
- Get your high-CHO post-exercise meal and fluids in first before drinking any alcohol, and then responsibly socialize. This way, less alcohol will have a tendency to be absorbed into your bloodstream and will pass into your small intestine with the rest of your food.
- Establish a limit on the number of drinks you have and stick to it.
- Avoid alcohol 24 hours before competition. It is better to avoid alcohol intake during tournaments.
- Nutrition and athletic performance – Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine. J Am Diet Assoc.;100:1543-1556, 2000.
- Kraemer, W.J., J.S. Volek, K.L. Clark, S.E. Gordon, T. Incledon, S.M. Puhl, N.T. Triplett-McBride, J.M. McBride, M. Putukian, W.J. Sebastianelli. Physiological adaptations to a weight-loss dietary regimen and exercise programs in women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 83, 270-279, 1997
- El-Sayed, M.S. Effects of alcohol ingestion post-exercise on platelet aggregation. Thromb Res. Jan 15;105(2):147-51. 2002.
- Peters, T.J., S. Nikolovski, G. K. Raja, T. N. Palmer, P. A. Fournier. Ethanol acutely impairs glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle following high intensity short duration exercise in the rat. Addict Biol.;1(3):289-95. 1996.
- Burke, L. M., G.R. Collier, E. M. Broad, P.G. Davis, D.T. Martin, A. J. Sanigorski, M. Hargreaves. Effect of alcohol intake on muscle glycogen storage after prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol. Sep;95(3):983-90. 2003
- Williams, M. B., P.B. Raven, D. L. Fogt, J. L. Ivy. Effects of recovery beverages on glycogen restoration and endurance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res. Feb;17(1):12-9. 2003.
- Zawadzki KM, Yaspelkis BB 3rd, Ivy JL. Carbohydrate-protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. J Appl Physiol. May;72(5):1854-9. 1992.
- Ivy, J. L., H. W. Goforth, Jr., B. M. Damon, T. R. McCauley, E. C. Parsons, T. B. Price. Early postexercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement. J Appl Physiol. Oct;93(4):1337-44. 2002.
- Lemon, P.W. Beyond the zone: protein needs of active individuals. J Am Coll Nutr. Oct;19(5 Suppl):513S-521S, 2000.
- Tipton, K. D., R. R. Wolfe. Protein and amino acids for athletes. J Sports Sci. Jan;22(1):65-79. 2004.
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